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Trinity and Divinity of Jesus

The debate over the Trinity started relatively late in Christian history. It was not until the fourth century that many theologia...

Saturday, October 15, 2011

Khrisha and Jesus Christ Compared

Believing and affirming, that the mythological portion of the history of Jesus of Nazareth, contained in the books forming the Canon of the New Testament, is nothing more or less than a copy of the mythological histories of the Hindoo Saviour Crishna, and the Buddhist Saviour Buddha,[278:1] with a mixture of mythology borrowed from the Persians and other nations, we shall in this and the chapter following, compare the histories of these Christs, side by side with that of Christ Jesus, the Christian Saviour.
In comparing the history of Crishna with that of Jesus, we have the following remarkable parallels:

1. "Crishna was born of a chaste virgin, called Devaki, who was selected by the Lord for this purpose on account of her purity."[278:2]

1. Jesus was born of a chaste virgin, called Mary, who was selected by the Lord for this purpose, on account of her purity.[278:3]
2. A chorus of Devatas celebrated with song the praise of Devaki, exclaiming: "In the delivery of this favored woman all nature shall have cause to exult."[278:4]

2. The angel of the Lord saluted Mary, and said: "Hail Mary! the Lord is with you, you are blessed above all women, . . . for thou hast found favor with the Lord."[278:5]
3. The birth of Crishna was announced in the heavens by his star.[278:6]

3. The birth of Jesus was announced in the heavens by his star.[278:7]
[Pg 279]4. On the morn of Crishna's birth, "the quarters of the horizon were irradiate with joy, as if moonlight was diffused over the whole earth;" "the spirits and nymphs of heaven danced and sang," and "the clouds emitted low pleasing sounds."[279:1]

4. When Jesus was born, the angels of heaven sang with joy, and from the clouds there came pleasing sounds.[279:2]
5. Crishna, though royally descended, was actually born in a state the most abject and humiliating, having been brought into the world in acave.[279:3]

5. "The birth of Jesus, the King of Israel, took place under circumstances of extreme indigence; and the place of his nativity, according to the united voice of the ancients, and of oriental travelers, was in a cave."[279:4]
6. "The moment Crishna was born, the whole cave was splendidly illuminated, and the countenances of his father and his mother emitted rays of glory."[279:5]

6. The moment Jesus was born, "there was a great light in the cave, so that the eyes of Joseph and the midwife could not bear it.[279:6]"
7. "Soon after Crishna's mother was delivered of him, and while she was weeping over him and lamenting his unhappy destiny, the compassionate infant assumed the power of speech, and soothed and comforted his afflicted parent."[279:7]

7. "Jesus spake even when he was in his cradle, and said to his mother: 'Mary, I am Jesus, the Son of God, that Word which thou didst bring forth according to the declaration of the Angel Gabriel unto thee, and my Father hath sent me for the salvation of the world.'"[279:8]
8. The divine child—Crishna—was recognized, and adored by cowherds, who prostrated themselves before the heaven-born child.[279:9]

8. The divine child—Jesus—was recognized, and adored by shepherds, who prostrated themselves before the heaven-born child.[279:10]
9. Crishna was received with divine honors, and presented with gifts of sandal-wood and perfumes.[279:11]

9. Jesus was received with divine honors, and presented with gifts of frankincense and myrrh.[279:12]
10. "Soon after the birth of Crishna, the holy Indian prophet Nared, hearing of the fame of the infant Crishna, pays him a visit at Gokul, examines the stars, and declares him to be of celestial descent."[279:13]

10. "Now when Jesus was born in Bethlehem of Judea, behold, there came wise men from the East, saying: Where is he that is born King of the Jews, for we have seen his star in the East and have come to worship him."[279:14]
11. Crishna was born at a time when Nanda—his foster-father—was away from home, having come to the city to pay his tax or yearly tribute, to the king.[279:15]

11. Jesus was born at a time when Joseph—his foster-father—was away from home, having come to the city to pay his tax or tribute to the governor.[279:16]
[Pg 280]12. Crishna, although born in a state the most abject and humiliating, was of royal descent.[280:1]

12. Jesus, although born in a state the most abject and humiliating, was of royal descent.[280:2]
13. Crishna's father was warned by a "heavenly voice," to "fly with the child to Gacool, across the river Jumna," as the reigning monarch sought his life.[280:3]

13. Jesus' father was warned "in a dream" to "take the young child and his mother, and flee into Egypt," as the reigning monarch sought his life.[280:4]
14. The ruler of the country in which Crishna was born, having been informed of the birth of the divine child, sought to destroy him. For this purpose, he ordered "the massacre in all his states, of all the children of the male sex, born during the night of the birth of Crishna."[280:5]

14. The ruler of the country in which Jesus was born, having been informed of the birth of the divine child, sought to destroy him. For this purpose, he ordered "all the children that were in Bethlehem, and in all the coasts thereof," to be slain.[280:6]
15. "Mathura (pronounced Mattra), was the city in which Crishna was born, where his most extraordinary miracles were performed, and which continues at this day the place where his name and Avatar are held in the most sacred veneration of any province in Hindostan."[280:7]

15. Matarea, near Hermopolis, in Egypt, is said to have been the place where Jesus resided during his absence from the land of Judea. At this place he is reported to have wrought many miracles.[280:8]
16. Crishna was preceded by Rama, who was born a short time before him, and whose life was sought by Kansa, the ruling monarch, at the time he attempted to destroy the infant Crishna.[280:9]

16. Jesus was preceded by John the "divine herald," who was born a short time before him, and whose life was sought by Herod, the ruling monarch, at the time he attempted to destroy the infant Jesus.[280:10]
17. Crishna, being brought up among shepherds, wanted the advantage of a preceptor to teach him the sciences. Afterwards, when he went to Mathura, a tutor, profoundly learned, was obtained for him; but, in a very short time, he became such a scholar as utterly to astonish and perplex his master with a variety of the most intricate questions in Sanscrit science.[280:11]

17. Jesus was sent to Zaccheus the schoolmaster, who wrote out an alphabet for him, and bade him say Aleph. "Then the Lord Jesus said to him, Tell me first the meaning of the letter Aleph, and then I will pronounce Beth, and when the master threatened to whip him, the Lord Jesus explained to him the meaning of the letters Aleph and Beth; also which where the straight figures of the letters, which the oblique, and what letters had [Pg 281]double figures; which had points, and which had none; why one letter went before another; and many other things he began to tell him and explain, of which the master himself had never heard, nor read in any book."[281:1]
18. "At a certain time, Crishna, taking a walk with the other cowherds, they chose him their King, and every one had his place assigned him under the new King."[281:2]

18. "In the month Adar, Jesus gathered together the boys, and ranked them as though he had been a King. . . . And if any one happened to pass by, they took him by force, and said, Come hither, and worship the King."[281:3]
19. Some of Crishna's play-fellows were stung by a serpent, and he, filled with compassion at their untimely fate, "and casting upon them an eye of divine mercy, they immediately rose," and were restored.[281:4]

19. When Jesus was at play, a boy was stung by a serpent, "and he (Jesus) touched the boy with his hand," and he was restored to his former health.[281:5]
20. Crishna's companions, with some calves, were stolen, and hid in a cave, whereupon Crishna, "by his power, created other calves and boys, in all things, perfect resemblances of the others."[281:6]

20. Jesus' companions, who had hid themselves in a furnace, were turned into kids, whereupon Jesus said: "Come hither, O boys, that we may go and play; and immediately the kids were changed into the shape of boys."[281:7]
21. "One of the first miracles performed by Crishna, when mature, was the curing of a leper."[281:8]

21. One of the first miracles performed by Jesus, when mature, was the curing of a leper.[281:9]
22. A poor cripple, or lame woman, came, with "a vessel filled with spices, sweet-scented oils, sandal-wood, saffron, civet, and other perfumes, and made a certain sign on his (Crishna's) forehead, casting the rest upon his head."[281:10]

22. "Now, when Jesus was in Bethany, in the house of Simon the leper, there came unto him a woman having an alabaster box of very precious ointment, and poured it on his head, as he sat at meat."[281:11]
23. Crishna was crucified, and he is represented with arms extended, hanging on a cross.[281:12]

23. Jesus was crucified, and he is represented with arms extended, hanging on a cross.
24. At the time of the death of Crishna, there came calamities and bad omens of every kind. A black circle surrounded the moon, and the sun was darkened at noon-day; the sky rained fire and ashes; flames burned dusky and livid; demons committed depredations on earth; at sunrise and sunset, thousands of figures were seen skirmishing in the air; spirits were to be seen on all sides.[282:1]

24. At the time of the death of Jesus, there came calamities of many kinds. The veil of the temple was rent in twain from the top to the bottom, the sun was darkened from the sixth to the ninth hour, and the graves were opened, and many bodies of the saints which slept arose and came out of their graves.[282:2]
25. Crishna was pierced with an arrow.[282:3]

25. Jesus was pierced with a spear.[282:4]
26. Crishna said to the hunter who shot him: "Go, hunter, through my favor, to heaven, the abode of the gods."[282:5]

26. Jesus said to one of the malefactors who was crucified with him: "Verily I say unto thee, this day shalt thou be with me in paradise."[282:6]
27. Crishna descended into hell.[282:7]

27. Jesus descended into hell.[282:8]
28. Crishna, after being put to death, rose again from the dead.[282:9]

28. Jesus, after being put to death, rose again from the dead.[282:10]
29. Crishna ascended bodily into heaven, and many persons witnessed his ascent.[282:11]

29. Jesus ascended bodily into heaven, and many persons witnessed his ascent.[282:12]
30. Crishna is to come again on earth in the latter days. He will appear among mortals as an armed warrior, riding a white horse. At his approach the sun and moon will be darkened, the earth will tremble, and the stars fall from the firmament.[282:13]

30. Jesus is to come again on earth in the latter days. He will appear among mortals as an armed warrior, riding a white horse. At his approach, the sun and moon will be darkened, the earth will tremble, and the stars fall from the firmament.[282:14]
31. Crishna is to be judge of the dead at the last day.[282:15]

31. Jesus is to be judge of the dead at the last day.[282:16]
32. Crishna is the creator of all things visible and invisible; "all this universe came into being through him, the eternal maker."[282:17]

32. Jesus is the creator of all things visible and invisible; "all this universe came into being through him, the eternal maker."[282:18]
33. Crishna is Alpha and Omega, "the beginning, the middle, and the end of all things."[282:19]

33. Jesus is Alpha and Omega, the beginning, the middle, and the end of all things.[282:20]
34. Crishna, when on earth, was in constant strife against the evil spirit.[282:21] He surmounts extraordinary dangers, strews his way with miracles, raising the dead, healing the sick, restoring the maimed, the deaf and the blind, everywhere supporting the weak against the strong, the oppressed against the powerful. The people crowded his way, and adored him as a God.[283:1]

34. Jesus, when on earth, was in constant strife against the evil spirit.[282:22] He surmounts extraordinary dangers, strews his way with miracles, raising the dead, healing the sick, restoring the maimed, the deaf and the blind, everywhere supporting the weak against the strong, the oppressed against the powerful. The people crowded his way and adored him as a God.[283:2]
35. Crishna had a beloved disciple—Arjuna.[283:3]

35. Jesus had a beloved disciple—John.[283:4]
36. Crishna was transfigured before his disciple Arjuna. "All in an instant, with a thousand suns, blazing with dazzling luster, so beheld he the glories of the universe collected in the one person of the God of Gods."[283:5]

Arjuna bows his head at this vision, and folding his hands in reverence, says:

"Now that I see thee as thou really art, I thrill with terror! Mercy! Lord of Lords, once more display to me thy human form, thou habitation of the universe."[283:6]

36. "And after six days, Jesus taketh Peter, James, and John his brother, and bringeth them up into a high mountain apart, and was transfigured before them. And his face did shine as the sun, and his raiment was white as the light. . . While he yet spake, behold, a bright cloud overshadowed them, and behold, a voice out of the cloud, which said: &c." "And when the disciples heard it, they fell on their faces, and were sore afraid."[283:7]
37. Crishna was "the meekest and best tempered of beings." "He preached very nobly indeed, and sublimely." "He was pure and chaste in reality,"[283:8] and, as a lesson of humility, "he even condescended to wash the feet of the Brahmins."[283:9]

37. Jesus was the meekest and best tempered of beings. He preached very nobly indeed, and sublimely. He was pure and chaste, and he even condescended to wash the feet of his disciples, to whom he taught a lesson of humility.[283:10]
38. "Crishna is the very Supreme Brahma, though it be a mystery how the Supreme should assume the form of a man."[283:11]

38. Jesus is the very Supreme Jehovah, though it be a mystery how the Supreme should assume the form of a man, for "Great is the mystery of Godliness."[283:12]
39. Crishna is the second person in the Hindoo Trinity.[283:13]

39. Jesus is the second person in the Christian Trinity.[283:14]
40. Crishna said: "Let him if seeking God by deep abstraction, abandon his possessions and his hopes, betake himself to some secluded spot, and fix his heart and thoughts on God alone."[284:1]

40. Jesus said: "But thou, when thou prayest, enter into thy closet, and when then hast shut thy door, pray to thy Father, which is in secret."[284:2]
41. Crishna said: "Whate'er thou dost perform, whate'er thou eatest, whate'er thou givest to the poor, whate'er thou offerest in sacrifice, whate'er thou doest as an act of holy presence, do all as if to me, O Arjuna. I am the great Sage, without beginning; I am the Ruler and the All-sustainer."[284:3]

41. Jesus said: "Whether therefore ye eat, or drink, or whatsoever ye do, do all to the glory of God"[284:4] who is the great Sage, without beginning; the Ruler and the All-sustainer.
42. Crishna said: "I am the cause of the whole universe; through me it is created and dissolved; on me all things within it hang and suspend, like pearls upon a string."[284:5]

42. "Of him, and through him, and unto him, are all things." "All things were made by him; and without him was not anything made that was made."[284:6]
43. Crishna said: "I am the light in the Sun and Moon, far, far beyond the darkness. I am the brilliancy in flame, the radiance in all that's radiant, and the light of lights."[284:7]

43. "Then spoke Jesus again unto them, saying: I am the light of the world; he that followeth me shall not walk in darkness, but shall have the light of life."[284:8]
44. Crishna said: "I am the sustainer of the world, its friend and Lord. I am its way and refuge."[284:9]

44. "Jesus said unto them, I am the way, the truth, and the life. No man cometh unto the Father, but by me."[284:10]
45. Crishna said: "I am the Goodness of the good; I am Beginning, Middle, End, Eternal Time, the Birth, the Death of all."[284:11]

45. "I am the first and the last; and have the keys of hell and of death."[284:12]
46. Crishna said: "Then be not sorrowful, from all thy sins I will deliver thee. Think thou on me, have faith in me, adore and worship me, and join thyself in meditation to me; thus shalt thou come to me, O Arjuna; thus shalt thou rise to my supreme abode, where neither sun nor moon hath need to shine, for know that all the lustre they possess is mine."[284:13]

46. Jesus said: "Be of good cheer; thy sins be forgiven thee."[284:14] "My son, give me thine heart."[284:15] "The city had no need of the sun, neither of the moon, to shine in it; for the glory of God did lighten it."[284:16]

Many other remarkable passages might be adduced from the Bhagavad-gita, the following of which may be noted:[284:17]
"He who has brought his members under subjection, but sits with foolish minds thinking in his heart of sensual things, is called a hypocrite." (Compare Matt. v. 28.)
"Many are my births that are past; many are thine too, O Arjuna. I know them all, but thou knowest them not." (Comp. John, viii. 14.)
"For the establishment of righteousness am I born from time to time." (Comp. John, xviii. 37; I. John, iii. 3.)
"I am dearer to the wise than all possessions, and he is dearer to me." (Comp. Luke, xiv. 33; John, xiv. 21.)
"The ignorant, the unbeliever, and he of a doubting mind perish utterly." (Comp. Mark, xvi. 16.)
"Deluded men despise me when I take human form." (Comp. John, i. 10.)
Crishna had the titles of "Saviour," "Redeemer," "Preserver," "Comforter," "Mediator," &c. He was called "The Resurrection and the Life," "The Lord of Lords," "The Great God," "The Holy One," "The Good Shepherd," &c. All of which are titles applied to Christ Jesus.
Justice, humanity, good faith, compassion, disinterestedness, in fact, all the virtues, are said[285:1] to have been taught by Crishna, both by precept and example.
The Christian missionary Georgius, who found the worship of the crucified God in India, consoles himself by saying: "That which P. Cassianus Maceratentis had told me before, I find to have been observed more fully in French by the Living De Guignes, a most learned man; i. e., that Crishna is the very name corrupted of Christ the Saviour."[285:2] Many others have since made a similar statement, but unfortunately for them, the name Crishna has nothing whatever to do with "Christ the Saviour." It is a purely Sanscrit word, and means "the dark god" or "the black god."[285:3] The word Christ (which is not a name, but a title), as we have already seen, is a Greek word, and means "the Anointed," or "the Messiah." The fact is, the history of Christ Crishna is older than that of Christ Jesus.
Statues of Crishna are to be found in the very oldest cave temples throughout India, and it has been satisfactorily proved, on the authority of a passage ofArrian, that the worship of Crishna was practiced in the time of Alexander the Great at what still remains one of the most famous temples of India, the temple of Mathura, on the Jumna river,[285:4] which shows that he was considered a god at that time.[286:1] We have already seen that, according to Prof. Monier Williams, he was deified about the fourth century B. C.
Rev. J. P. Lundy says:
"If we may believe so good an authority as Edward Moor (author of Moor's "Hindu Pantheon," and "Oriental Fragments"), both the name of Crishna, and the general outline of his history, were long anterior to the birth of our Saviour, as very certain things, and probably extended to the time of Homer, nearly nine hundred years before Christ, or more than a hundred years before Isaiah lived and prophesied."[286:2]
In the Sanscrit Dictionary, compiled more than two thousand years ago, we have the whole story of Crishna, the incarnate deity, born of a virgin, and miraculously escaping in his infancy from Kansa, the reigning monarch of the country.[286:3]
The Rev. J. B. S. Carwithen, known as one of the "Brampton Lecturers," says:
"Both the name of Crishna and the general outline of his story are long anterior to the birth of our Saviour; and this we know, not on the presumed antiquity of the Hindoo records alone. Both Arrian and Strabo assert that the god Crishna was anciently worshiped at Mathura, on the river Jumna, where he is worshiped at this day. But the emblems and attributes essential to this deity are also transplanted into the mythology of the West."[286:4]
On the walls of the most ancient Hindoo temples, are sculptured representations of the flight of Vasudeva and the infant Saviour Crishna, from King Kansa, who sought to destroy him. The story of the slaughtered infants is also the subject of an immense sculpture in the cave temple of Elephanta. A person with a drawn sword is represented surrounded by slaughtered infant boys, while men and women are supplicating for their children. The date of this sculpture is lost in the most remote antiquity.[286:5]
The flat roof of this cavern-temple, and that of Ellora, and every other circumstance connected with them, prove that their origin must be referred to a very remote epoch. The ancient temples can easily be distinguished from the more modern ones—such as those of Solsette—by the shape of the roof. The ancient are flat, while the more modern are arched.[286:6]

The Bhagavad gita, which contains so many sentiments akin to Christianity, and which was not written until about the first or second century,[287:1] has led many Christian scholars to believe, and attempt to prove, that they have been borrowed from the New Testament, but unfortunately for them, their premises are untenable. Prof. Monier Williams, the accepted authority on Hindooism, and a thorough Christian, writing for the "Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge," knowing that he could not very well overlook this subject in speaking of the Bhagavad-gita, says:
"To any one who has followed me in tracing the outline of this remarkable philosophical dialogue, and has noted the numerous parallels it offers to passages in our Sacred Scriptures, it may seem strange that I hesitate to concur to any theory which explains these coincidences by supposing that the author had access to the New Testament, or that he derived some of his ideas from the first propagaters of Christianity. Surely it will be conceded that the probability of contact and interaction between Gentile systems and the Christian religion of the first two centuries of our era must have been greater in Italy than in India. Yet, if we take the writings and sayings of those great Roman philosophers, Seneca, Epictetus, and Marcus Aurelius, we shall find them full of resemblances to passages in our Scriptures, while their appears to be no ground whatever for supposing that these eminent Pagan writers and thinkers derived any of their ideas from either Jewish or Christian sources. In fact, the Rev. F. W. Farrar, in his interesting and valuable work 'Seekers after God,' has clearly shown that 'to say that Pagan morality kindled its faded taper at the Gospel light, whether furtively or unconsciously, that it dissembled the obligation and made a boast of the splendor, as if it were originally her own, is to make an assertion wholly untenable.' He points out that the attempts of the Christian Fathers to make out Pythagoras a debtor to Hebraic wisdom, Plato an 'Atticizing Moses,' Aristotle a picker-up of ethics from a Jew, Seneca a correspondent of St. Paul, were due 'in some cases to ignorance, in some to a want of perfect honesty in controversial dealing.'[287:2]
"His arguments would be even more conclusive if applied to the Bhagavad-gita, the author of which was probably contemporaneous with Seneca.[287:3] It must, indeed, be admitted that the flames of true light which emerge from the mists of pantheism in the writings of Indian philosophers, must spring from the same source of light as the Gospel itself; but it may reasonably be questioned whether there could have been any actual contact of the Hindoo systems with Christianity without [Pg 288]a more satisfactory result in the modification of pantheistic and anti-Christian ideas."[288:1]
Again he says:
"It should not be forgotten that although the nations of Europe have changed their religions during the past eighteen centuries, the Hindu has not done so, except very partially. Islam converted a certain number by force of arms in the eighth and following centuries, and Christian truth is at last slowly creeping onwards and winning its way by its own inherent energy in the nineteenth; but the religious creeds, rites, customs, and habits of thought of the Hindus generally, have altered little since the days of Manu, five hundred yearsb. c."[288:2]
These words are conclusive; comments, therefore, are unnecessary.
Geo. W. Cox, in his "Aryan Mythology," speaking on this subject says:
"It is true that these myths have been crystallized around the name of Crishna in ages subsequent to the period during which the earliest vedic literature came into existence; but the myths themselves are found in this older literature associated with other gods, and not always only in germ. There is no more room for inferring foreign influence in the growth of any of these myths than, as Bunsen rightly insists, there is room for tracing Christian influence in the earlier epical literature of the Teutonic tribes. Practically the myths of Crishna seems to have been fully developed in the days of Megasthenes (fourth century B. C.) who identifies him with the Greek Hercules."[288:3]
It should be remembered, in connection with this, that Dr. Parkhurst and others have considered Hercules a type of Christ Jesus.
In the ancient epics Crishna is made to say:
"I am Vishnu, Brahma, Indra, and the source as well as the destruction of things, the creator and the annihilator of the whole aggregate of existences. While all men live in unrighteousness, I, the unfailing, build up the bulwark of righteousness, as the ages pass away."[288:4]
These words are almost identical with what we find in the Bhagavad-gita. In the Maha-bharata, Vishnu is associated or identified with Crishna, just as he is in the Bhagavad-gita and Vishnu Purana, showing, in the words of Prof. Williams, that: the Puranas, although of a comparatively modern date, are nevertheless composed of matter to be found in the two great epic poems the Ramayana and the Maha-bharata.[288:5]

[278:1]It is also very evident that the history of Crishna—or that part of it at least which has a religious aspect—is taken from that of Buddha. Crishna, in the ancient epic poems, is simply a great hero, and it is not until about the fourth century B. C., that he is deified and declared to be an incarnation of Vishnu, or Vishnu himself in human form. (See Monier Williams' Hinduism, pp. 102, 103.)
"If it be urged that the attribution to Crishna of qualities or powers belonging to the other deities is a mere device by which his devotees sought to supersede the more ancient gods, the answer must be that nothing is done in his case which has not been done in the case of almost every other member of the great company of the gods, and that the systematic adoption of this method is itself conclusive proof of the looseness and flexibility of the materials of which the cumbrous mythology of the Hindu epic poems is composed." (Cox: Aryan Mythology, vol. ii. p. 130.) These words apply very forcibly to the history of Christ Jesus. He being attributed with qualities and powers belonging to the deities of the heathen is a mere device by which his devotees sought to supersede the more ancient gods.
[278:3]See The Gospel of Mary, Apoc., ch. vii.
[278:4]Hist. Hindostan, vol. ii. p. 329.
[278:5]Mary, Apoc., vii. Luke, i. 28-30.
[278:6]Hist. Hindostan, vol. ii. pp. 317 and 336.
[278:7]Matt. ii. 2.
[279:1]Vishnu Purana, p. 502.
[279:2]Luke, ii. 13.
[279:4]Hist. Hindostan, vol. ii. p. 311. See also, chap. xvi.
[279:6]Protevangelion, Apoc., chs. xii. and xiii.
[279:7]Hist. Hindostan, vol. ii. 311.
[279:8]Infancy, Apoc., ch. i. 2, 3.
[279:10]Luke, ii. 8-10.
[279:11]See Oriental Religions, p. 500, and Inman's Ancient Faiths, vol. ii. p. 353.
[279:12]Matt. ii. 2.
[279:13]Hist. Hindostan, vol. ii. p. 317.
[279:14]Matt., ii. 1, 2.
[279:15]Vishnu Purana, bk. v. ch. iii.
[279:16]Luke, ii. 1-17.
[280:1]Asiatic Researches, vol. i. p. 259. Hist. Hindostan, vol. ii. p. 310.
[280:2]See the Genealogies in Matt. and Luke.
[280:4]Matt. ii. 13.
[280:6]Matt. ii. 16.
[280:7]Hist. Hindostan, vol. ii. p. 317. Asiatic Researches, vol. i. p. 259.
[280:8]Introduc. to Infancy, Apoc. Higgins: Anacalypsis, vol. i. p. 130. Savary: Travels in Egypt, vol. i. p. 126, in Hist. Hindostan, vol. ii. p. 318.
[280:9]Hist. Hindostan, vol. ii. p. 316.
[280:10]"Elizabeth, hearing that her son John was about to be searched for (by Herod), took him and went up into the mountains, and looked around for a place to hide him. . . . But Herod made search after John, and sent servants to Zacharias," &c. (Protevangelion, Apoc. ch. xvi.)
[280:11]Hist. Hindostan, vol. ii. p. 321.
[281:1]Infancy, Apoc., ch. xx. 1-8.
[281:2]Hist. Hindostan, vol. ii. p. 321.
[281:3]Infancy, Apoc., ch. xviii. 1-3.
[281:4]Hist. Hindostan, vol. ii. p. 343.
[281:5]Infancy, Apoc., ch. xviii.
[281:6]Hist. Hindostan, vol. ii. p. 340. Aryan Mytho., vol. ii. p. 136.
[281:7]Infancy, Apoc., ch. xvii.
[281:8]Hist. Hindostan, vol. ii. p. 319, and ch. xxvii. this work.
[281:9]Matthew, viii. 2.
[281:10]Hist. Hindostan, vol. ii. p. 320.
[281:11]Matt. xxvi. 6-7.
[282:1]Prog. Relig. Ideas, vol. i. p. 71.
[282:2]Matt. xxii. Luke, xxviii.
[282:4]John, xix. 34.
[282:5]See Vishnu Purana, p. 612.
[282:6]Luke, xxiii. 43.
[282:10]Matt. xxviii.
[282:12]See Acts, i. 9-11.
[282:14]See passages quoted in ch. xxiv.
[282:15]See Oriental Religions, p. 504.
[282:16]Matt. xxiv. 31. Rom. xiv. 10.
[282:18]John, i. 3. I. Cor. viii. 6. Eph. iii. 9.
[282:19]See Geeta, lec. x. p. 85.
[282:20]Rev. i. 8, 11; xxii. 13; xxi. 6.
[282:21]He is described as a superhuman organ of light, to whom the superhuman organ of darkness, the evil serpent, was opposed. He is represented "bruising the head of the serpent," and standing upon him. (See illustrations in vol. i. Asiatic Researches; vol. ii. Higgins' Anacalypsis; Calmet's Fragments, and other works illustrating Hindoo Mythology.)
[282:22]Jesus, "the Sun of Righteousness," is also described as a superhuman organ of light, opposed by Satan, "the old serpent." He is claimed to have been the seed of the woman who should "bruise the head of the serpent." (Genesis, iii. 15.)
[283:2]According to the New Testament.
[283:3]See Bhagavat Geeta.
[283:4]John, xiii. 23.
[283:5]Williams' Hinduism, p. 215.
[283:6]Ibid. p. 216.
[283:7]Matt. xvii. 1-6.
[283:8]"He was pure and chaste in reality," although represented as sporting amorously, when a youth, with cowherdesses. According to the pure Vaishnava faith, however, Crishna's love for the Gopis, and especially for his favorite Rādhā, is to be explained allegorically, as symbolizing the longing of the human soul for the Supreme. (Prof. Monier Williams: Hinduism, p. 144.) Just as the amorous "Song of Solomon" is said to be allegorical, and to mean "Christ's love for his church."
[283:9]See Indian Antiquities, iii. 46, and Asiatic Researches, vol. i. p. 273.
[283:10]John, xiii.
[283:11]Vishnu Purana, p. 492, note 3.
[283:12]I. Timothy, iii. 16.
[283:13]Brahma, Vishnu, and Siva. Crishna is Vishnu in human form. "A more personal, and, so to speak, human god than Siva was needed for the mass of the people—a god who could satisfy the yearnings of the human heart for religion of faith (bhakti)—a god who could sympathize with, and condescend to human wants and necessities. Such a god was found in the second member of the Tri-mūrti. It was as Vishnu that the Supreme Being was supposed to exhibit his sympathy with human trials, and his love for the human race.
"If Siva is the great god of the Hindu Pantheon, to whom adoration is due from all indiscriminately, Vishnu is certainly its most popular deity. He is the god selected by far the greater number of individuals as their Saviour, protector and friend, who rescues them from the power of evil, interests himself in their welfare, and finally admits them to his heaven. But it is not so much Vishnu in his own person asVishnu in his incarnations, that effects all this for his votaries." (Prof. Monier Williams: Hinduism, p. 100.)
[283:14]Father, Son, and Holy Ghost. Jesus is the Son in human form.
[284:1]Williams' Hinduism, p. 211.
[284:2]Matt. vi. 6.
[284:3]Williams' Hinduism, p. 212.
[284:4]I. Cor. x. 31.
[284:5]Williams' Hinduism, p. 213.
[284:6]John, i. 3.
[284:7]Williams' Hinduism, p. 213.
[284:8]John, viii. 12.
[284:9]Williams' Hinduism, p. 213.
[284:10]John, xiv. 6.
[284:11]Williams' Hinduism, p. 213.
[284:12]Rev. i. 17, 18.
[284:13]Williams' Hinduism, p. 214.
[284:14]Matt. ix. 2.
[284:15]Prov. xxiii. 26.
[284:16]Rev. xxi. 23.
[284:17]Quoted from Williams' Hinduism, pp. 217-219.
[285:1]It is said in the Hindoo sacred books that Crishna was a religious teacher, but, as we have previously remarked, this is a later addition to his legendary history. In the ancient epic poems he is simply a great hero and warrior. The portion pertaining to his religious career, is evidently a copy of the history of Buddha.
[285:2]"Est Crishna (quod ut mihi pridem indicaverat P. Cassianus Maceratentis, sic nunc uberius in Galliis observatum intelligo avivo litteratissimo De Guignes) nomen ipsum corruptum Christi Servatoris."
[285:3]See Williams' Hinduism, and Maurice: Hist. Hindostan, vol. ii. p. 269.
[285:4]See Celtic Druids, pp. 256, 257.
[286:1]"Alexander the Great made his expedition to the banks of the Indus about 327 B. C., and to this invasion is due the first trustworthy information obtained by Europeans concerning the north-westerly portion of India and the region of the five rivers, down which the Grecian troops were conducted in ships by Nearchus. Megasthenes, who was the ambassador of Seleukos Nikator (Alexander's successor, and ruler over the whole region between the Euphrates and India, B. C. 312), at the court of Candra-gupa (Sandrokottus), in Pataliputra (Patna), during a long sojourn in that city collected further information, of which Strabo, Pliny, Arrian, and others availed themselves." (Williams' Hinduism, p. 4.)
[286:2]Monumental Christianity, p. 151. See also, Asiatic Researches, i. 273.
[286:3]See Asiatic Researches, vol. i. pp. 259-273.
[286:4]Quoted in Monumental Christianity, pp. 151, 152.
[286:6]See Prichard's Egyptian Mythology, p. 112.
[287:1]In speaking of the antiquity of the Bhagavad-gita, Prof. Monier Williams says: "The author was probably a Brahman and nominally a Vishnava, but really a philosopher whose mind was cast in a broad and comprehensive mould. He is supposed to have lived in India during the first and second century of our era. Some consider that he lived as late as the third century, and some place him even later,but with these I cannot agree." (Indian Wisdom, p. 137.)
[287:2]In order that the resemblances to Christian Scripture in the writings of Roman philosophers may be compared, Prof. Williams refers the reader to "Seekers after God," by the Rev. F. W. Farrar, and Dr. Ramage's "Beautiful Thoughts." The same sentiments are to be found in Mann, which, says Prof. Williams, "few will place later than the fifth century B. C." The Mahabhrata, written many centuries B. C., contains numerous parallels to New Testament sayings. (See our chapter on "Paganism in Christianity.")
[287:3]Seneca, the celebrated Roman philosopher, was born at Cordoba, in Spain, a few years B. C. When a child, he was brought by his father to Rome, where he was initiated in the study of eloquence.
[288:1]Indian Wisdom, pp. 153, 154. Similar sentiments are expressed in his Hinduism, pp. 218-220.
[288:2]Indian Wisdom, p. iv.
[288:3]Cox: Aryan Mythology, vol. ii. pp. 137, 138.
[288:4]Ibid. p. 131.
[288:5]Williams' Hinduism, pp. 119-110. It was from these sources that the doctrine of incarnation was first evolved by the Brahman. They were written many centuries B. C. (See Ibid.)

Extract from CHAPTER XXVIII, CHRIST CRISHNA AND CHRIST JESUS COMPARED BIBLE MYTHS AND THEIR PARALLELS IN OTHER RELIGIONS" By T. W. DOANE,  1882. Produced by Marilynda Fraser-Cunliffe, Lisa Reigel, and the Online Distributed Proofreading Team at http://www.pgdp.net